Aspiration events can be sudden and dramatic, and can cause significant complications or even death. Some episodes of aspiration can be very minor and the patient may remain asymptomatic. Common causes of aspiration include stroke, drug or alcohol overdose, dysphagia, neurologic diseases, prolonged vomiting, and traumatic brain injury (TBI). The signs and symptoms of aspiration can significantly vary from one individual to the next. Screening for aspiration is a vital part of preventative patient care and the evaluation of patients for their risk for aspiration should be done during an initial patient assessment and repeated as necessary.