Brain and spinal cord injuries are common medical emergencies. Brain injuries associated with medical conditions are the third leading cause of death in the United States, and they are the leading cause of disability. If there is an injury to the brain or the spinal cord, processes are disrupted. This disruption can lead to devastating consequences on bodily functions. Trauma or a medical condition may cause injury to the brain or spinal cord. The most common type of brain injury is a stroke, which is also a leading cause of disability and death in the United States. Treatment and care of a patient with a brain or spinal cord injury depends on the cause of the injury and requires attention to the patient’s nutrition, hydration, and the prevention of complications related to skin care and aspiration.