The renal system is a group of organs that form, store, and excrete urine and has several other important functions including the vital role of maintaining homeostasis of the internal environment of the body. Chronic kidney disease can cause serious, long-term conditions and permanent harm involving irreversible damage to the kidneys. This damage is reflected by decreased kidney function, abnormal test results, renal system deterioration, and medical complications. The incidence of chronic kidney disease varies based on patient demographics. Two types of dialysis are discussed, which include hemodialysis and peritoneal dialysis. The role of the health care professional within the dialysis team is raised as pivotal to successful patient care outcomes.