Atherosclerosis is a chronic, long-term process in which the walls of the arteries become hardened and abnormally narrowed by atherosclerotic plaques. Hardening of the arteries and the development of atherosclerotic plaques compromise the vascular system. Atherosclerosis develops due to fat and cholesterol accumulation, inflammation, and calcification. Preventative measures that stop or slow atherosclerosis is considered the best approach to good vascular health. While some risk factors for vascular disease are nonmodifiable, such as inherited characteristics, other risk factors may be controlled, such as blood lipid levels, obesity, a sedentary lifestyle, and smoking, to reduce the risk of vascular disorders. Lifestyle changes are very effective at lowering blood pressure and risk associated with vascular disease but they are a lifelong commitment that many people find difficult. Half of the people who know they have hypertension and vascular disease are not receiving treatment, or not being adequately treated. All health clinicians and health care professionals have a valuable role to assist patients in a health prevention plan to control the development of vascular disease.